La capacidad potencial de influencia del sector industrial manufacturero: Un análisis del Programa de Inspección y Vigilancia Industrial en México / The Potential Ability to Influence of the Manufacturing Sector: An Analysis of the Inspection and Monitori

Ma. Ofelia Camacho García

Resumen


Resumen. La investigación contribuye al estudio de los grupos industriales y su influencia en la regulación ambiental en México. Las industrias contaminantes poseen incentivos para influir y evitar visitas, de inspección y verificación, de la Procuraduría Federal de Protección al Ambiente (Profepa). A través de un análisis de componentes principales, se define la capacidad potencial de influencia de 62 ramas manufactureras, con base en sus estructuras organizativas y recursos de poder, y se estima un modelo para determinar qué efectos tienen los vínculos comerciales con el exterior, la producción, la capacidad potencial de influencia y la prioridad de inspección de la Profepa, en las visitas que ésta realiza. Los resultados del estudio señalan que las visitas de inspección se determinan por el nivel de producción, así como la prioridad que los sectores tienen para la Profepa; mientras que las visitas de verificación sólo se determinan por el nivel de prioridad.

Abstract. The research contributes to the study of industrial groups and their influence on the environmental regulation in Mexico. Polluting industries have incentives to influence and avoid inspection and verification visits of the Federal Attorney for Environmental Protection (Profepa). Through principal component analysis, it is defined the potential ability to influence of 62 manufacturing industries, based on their organizational structures and power resources. A model is estimated to determine what are the effects of trade links, production, potential ability to influence, and inspection priority for the Profepa, in the visits of the Profepa. The results indicate that the level of production, and the inspection priority for the Profepa determine the inspections; whereas level of priority determines the verification visits.


Palabras clave


política ambiental; contaminación ambiental; industria manufacturera; grupos de interés empresariales; environmental policy; environmental pollution; manufacturing industry; business interest groups.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Andonova, L., E.D. Mansfield y H. Milner (2007), “International Trade and Environmental Policy in the Postcommunist World”, Comparative Political Studies, 40(7), pp. 782-807.

Alba, C. (1992), “Las regiones industriales y los empresarios de México”, en C. Puga y R. Tirado (eds.), Los empresarios mexicanos, ayer y hoy, México, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México/Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana/Consejo Mexicano de Ciencias Sociales/ Ediciones El Caballito, pp. 107-130.

Bansal, P. y T. Hunter (2003), “Strategic Explanations for the Early Adoption of ISO 14001”, Journal of Business Ethics, 46(3), pp. 289-299. Bauer, R., I. Pool y L. Dexter (1963), American Business and Public Policy: The Politics of Foreign Trade, Chicago, Aldine.

Baumgartner, F. y B. Leech (1998), Basic Interests: The Importance of Groups in Politics and in Political Science, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Berry, J. (1999), The New Liberalism: The Rising Power of Citizen Groups, Washington, D.C., Brookings Institution Press.

Brañes, R. (2004), Manual de derecho ambiental mexicano, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Browne, W. (1990), “Organized Interests and their Issue Niches: A Search for Pluralism in a Policy Domain”, Journal of Politics, 52(2), pp. 477-509.

Cajiga, J. (2010), El concepto de responsabilidad social empresarial, disponible en: http://www.cemefi.org/esr/ [fecha de consulta: 7 de diciembre de 2010].

Carroll, A. (2007), “Corporate Social Responsibility”, en W. Visser, D. Matten, M. Pohl y N. Tolhurst (eds.), The A to Z of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Complete Reference Guide to Concepts, Codes and Organizations, West Sussex, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 122-131.

______ (2008), “A History of Corporate Social Responsibility: Concepts and practices”, en A. Crane, A. McWilliams, D. Matten, J. Moon y D. Siegel (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Corporate Social Responsibility, Nueva York, Oxford University Press, pp. 19-46.

Cater, D. (1964), Power in Washington: A Critical Look at Today’s Struggle to Govern in the Nation’s Capital, Nueva York, Random House. Cemefi (Centro Mexicano para la Filantropía) (2010), Responsabilidad social empresarial, disponible en: http://www.cemefi.org/esr/ [fecha de consulta: 8 de septiembre de 2010].

Crenson, M. (1971), The Un-Politics of Air Pollution: A Study of Non-decisionmaking in the Cities, Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Damania, R. y P. Fredriksson (2000), “Polluters and Collective Action: Theory and Evidence”, Southern Economic Journal, 72(1), pp. 167-185.

Damania, R., P. Fredriksson y T. Osang (2005), “On the Formation of Industry Lobby Groups”, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 41(4), pp. 315-335.

Darnall, N. y S. Sides (2008), “Assessing the Performance of Voluntary Environmental Programs: Does Certification Matter?”, The Policy Studies Journal, 36(1), pp. 95-117.

Darnall, N. y Y. Kim (2012), “Which Types of Environmental Management Systems are Related to Greater Environmental Improvements?”, Public Administration Review, 72(3), pp. 351-365.

De León, P., J. Rivera y L. Manderino (2009), “Voluntary Environment Programs: An Introduction”, en P. de León y J. Rivera (eds.), Voluntary Environmental Programs: A Police Perspective, Maryland, Lexington Books, pp. 1-10.

Delmas, M. y M. Montes-Sancho (2007), Voluntary Agreements to Improve Environmental Quality: Are Late Joiners the Free-riders?, Santa Barbara, University of California/isber Publications.

Downey, L. y M. Van Willigen (2005), “Environmental Stressors: The Mental Health Impacts of Living Near Industrial Activity”, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46(3), pp. 289-305.

Dunteman, G. (1989), Principal Components Analysis, Iowa, SAGE University Paper.

Fleischmann, A. (1997), “Participation in Local Politics”, en R. Vogel (ed.), Handbook of Research on Urban Politics and Policy in the United States, Westport, Greenwood Press, pp. 149-158.

Gamper-Rabindran, S. (2006), “Did the epa’s Voluntary Industrial Toxics Program Reduce Emissions? A gis Analysis of Distributional Impacts and By-media Analysis of Substitution”, Journal of Environmental and Management, 52(1), pp. 391-410.

García, L., S. González y J. Rodríguez (1995), “Los peligros industriales en la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara”, Revista Comercio Exterior: Economía Urbana, 45(10), pp. 775-787.

Gil, M. (2007), Crónica ambiental: Gestión pública de políticas ambientales en México, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica/Semarnat/ine.

Godau, R. (1985), “La protección ambiental en México: Sobre la conformación de una política pública”, Estudios Sociológicos, 3(7), pp. 47-84.

Gray, V. y D. Lowery (1996), The Population Ecology of Interest Representation, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.

Heinz, J., E. Laumann R. Nelson y R. Salisbury (1993), The Hollow Core: Private Interests in National Policymaking, Cambridge, Harvard University Press.

Hsu, M.J., K. Selvaraj y G. Agoramoorthy (2006), “Taiwan’s Industrial Heavy Metal Pollution Threatens Terrestrial Biota”, Environmental Pollution, 143(2), pp. 327-334.

Innes, S. y A. Sam (2008), “Voluntary Pollution Reductions and the Enforcement of Environmental Law: An Empirical Study of the 33/50 Program”, Journal of Law and Economics, 51(2), pp. 271-296.

INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) (2008), Sistema de Clasificación Industrial de América del Norte, 2007, México, INEGI.

Kamieniecki, S. (2006), Corporate America and Environmental Policy: How often does Business Get its Way?, Stanford, Stanford University Press.

Khanna, M. y L. Damon (1999), “epa’s Voluntary 33/50 Program: Impact on Toxic Releases and Economic Performance of Firms”, Journal of Environmental and Management, 37(1), pp. 1-25.

Khanna, M., P. Koss, C. Jones y D. Ervin (2007), “Motivations for Voluntary Environmental Management”, The Policy Studies Journal, 35(4), pp. 751-772.

Koehler, D. (2007), “The Effectiveness of Voluntary Environmental Programs: A Policy at a Crossroads?”, The Policy Studies Journal, 35(4), pp. 689-722.

Kollman, K. y A. Prakash (2002), “ems-based Environmental Regimes as Club Goods: Examining Variations in Firm-level Adoption of ISO 14001 and emas in U.K. and Germany”, Policy Sciences, 35(1), pp. 43-67.

Kraft, M. y S. Kamieniecki (2007), Business and Environmental Policy: Corporate Interests in the American Political System, Cambridge, The mit Press.

Ley de Cámaras Empresariales y sus Confederaciones.

Lindblom, C. (1991), El proceso de elaboración de políticas públicas, Madrid, Ministerio para las Administraciones Públicas.

Lowery, D. y V. Gray (2004), “A Neo-pluralist Perspective on Research on Organized Firms”, Political Research Quarterly, 57(1), pp. 163-175.

Lowi, T. (1969), The End of Liberalism, Nueva York, Norton.

Lubell, M. y A. Vedlitz (2006), “Collective Action, Environmental Activism and Air Quality Policy”, Political Research Quarterly, 59(1), pp. 149-160.

Lyon, T. y J. Maxwell (2007), “Environmental Public Voluntary Programs Reconsidered”, The Policy Studies Journal, 35(4), pp. 723-750.

Mani, M. y D. Wheeler (1999), “In Search of Pollution Heavens? Dirty Industry in the World Economy”, en P. Fredriksson (ed.), Trade Global Policy and the Environment, documento de discusión 402, Banco Mundial, pp. 115-129.

Marqués, S. y M. Lima (2011), “Living in Grey Areas: Industrial Activity and Psychological Health”, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31(4), pp. 314-322.

Martino, M. (1998), “Interest Groups in the Rule-making Process: Who Participates? Whose Voices Get Heard?”, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 8(2), pp. 245-270.

McConnell, G. (1966), Private Power and American Democracy, Nueva York, Knopf.

McKitrick, R. (2006), “The Politics of Pollution: Party Regimes and Air Quality in Canada”, The Canadian Journal of Economics, 39(2), pp. 604-620.

Merino, M. (2001), La participación ciudadana en la democracia, México, Dirección Ejecutiva de Capacitación Electoral y Educación Cívica del Instituto Federal Electoral.

Milbrath, L. (1963), The Washington Lobbyists, Chicago, Rand MacNally.

Moe, T. (1981), “Toward a Broader View of Interest Groups”, The Journal of Politics, 43(2), pp. 531-543.

Molina, L. y M. Molina (eds.) (2002), Air Quality in the Mexico Megacity: An Integrated Assessment, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Mosca, G. (1984), La clase política, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Mumme, S., R. Bath y V. Assetto (1988), “Political Development and Environmental Policy in Mexico”, Latin American Research Review, 23(1), pp. 7-34.

Olson, M. (1965), The Logic of Collective Action Public Goods and the Theory of Groups, Cambridge, Harvard University Press.

Ostrom, E. (2000), El gobierno de los bienes comunes: La evolución de las instituciones de acción colectiva, México, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México/Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias/Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Pacheco, R. y O. Vega (2001), “Las modalidades participación ciudadana en política ambiental”, Economía, Sociedad y Territorio, 3(9), pp. 25-62.

Peña, D. (2002), Análisis de datos multivariantes, Madrid, McGraw-Hill.

Peterson, P. (1981), City limits, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Pittman, R. (1976), “Rent-Seeking and Market Structure: Comment”, Public Choice, 58(2), pp. 71-80.

Portney, K. E. (1986), Approaching Public Policy Analysis: An Introduction to Policy and Program Research, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall.

Potoski, M. y A. Prakash (2004), “Regulatory Convergence in Non-governmental Regimes? Cross-National Analysis Adoption of iso 14001 Certifications”, The Journal of Politics, 66(3), pp. 885-905.

Potoski, M. y A. Prakash (2005), “Green Clubs and Voluntary Governance: ISO 14001 and Firm’s Regulatory Compliance”, American Journal of Political Science, 49(2), pp. 235-248.

Prakash, A. y M. Potoski (2006), “Racing to the Bottom? Trade, Environmental Governance and iso 14001”, American Journal of Political Science, 50(2), pp. 350-364.

Presthus, R. (1974), “Interest Group Lobbying: Canada and the United States”, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 413(1), pp. 44-57.

PROFEPA (Procuraduría Federal de Protección al Ambiente) (2010), Subprocuraduría de Inspección Industrial, disponible en: http://www.pa.gob.mx/PROFEPA/InspeccionIndustrial/SubprocuraduriadeInspeccionIndustrial/SubprocuraduriaDeInspeccion.htm [fecha de consulta: 30 de mayo de 2010].

______ (2014), Visita de Inspección, disponible en: http://www.profepa.gob.mx/innovaportal/file/511/1/VisitadeInspecciC3B3n.pdf [fecha de consulta: 17 de diciembre de 2014].

______ (2014a), Qué hacemos, disponible en: http://profepa.gob.mx/innovaportal/v/5000/1/mx/que_hacemos.html [fecha de consulta: 17 de diciembre de 2014].

______ (2014b), Programa de Inspección, disponible en: http://profepa.gob.mx/innovaportal/v/165/1/mx/programa_de_inspeccion.html [fecha de consulta: 27 de diciembre de 2014].

______ (2014c), “Procedimiento administrativo”, disponible en: http://www.profepa.gob.mx/innovaportal/v/511/1/mx/procedimiento_administrativo.html [fecha de consulta: 27 de diciembre de 2014].

Puga, C. y R. Tirado (eds.) (1992), Los empresarios mexicanos, ayer y hoy, México, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México/Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana/Consejo Mexicano de Ciencias Sociales/ Ediciones El Caballito.

Rosenbaum, W. (2011), Environmental Politics and Policy, Washington, D.C., CQ Press.

Ross, B. (2002), “Why is Mexican Business so Organized?”, Latin American Research Review, 37(1), pp. 77-118.

Russo, M. (2009), “Explaining the Impact of iso 14001 on Emission Performance: A Dynamic Capabilities Perspective on Process and Learning”, Business Strategy and the Environment, 18(5), pp. 307-319.

Salisbury, R. (1990), “The Paradox of Interests in Washington, D.C.: More Groups Less Clouts”, en A. King (ed.), The New American Political System, Washington, D.C., American Enterprise Institute, pp. 203-229.

Sabatier, P. (1991), “Towards Better Theories of the Policy Process”, Political Science and Politics, 24(2), pp. 147-156.

Sam, A., M. Khanna y R. Innes (2009), “Voluntary Pollution Reduction Programs, Environmental Management and Environmental Performance: An Empirical Study”, Land Economics, 85(4), pp. 692-711.

Sánchez, L. (2006), “Grupos de interés y reforma comercial en México”, El Trimestre Económico, 73(2), pp. 337-361.

Sandler, T. (1992), Collective Action: Theory and Applications, Ann Arbor, The University of Michigan Press.

Scott, A. y M. Hunt (1965), Congress and Lobbies, Chapel Hill, North Carolina University Press.

Shah, K. y J. Rivera (2007), “Export Processing Zones and Corporate Environmental Performance in Emerging Economies: The Case of the Oil, Gas and Chemical Sectors of Trinidad and Tobago”, Policy Sciences, 40(4), pp. 265-285.

Smith, M. (2000), American Business and Political Power: Public Opinion, Elections and Democracy, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Story, D. (1983), “Industrial Elites in Mexico: Political Ideology and Influence”, Journal of Inter American Studies and World Affairs, 251(3), pp. 351-376.

Szymanski, M. y P. Tiwari (2004), “ISO 14001 and the Reduction of Toxic Emissions”, Journal of Economic Policy Reform, 7(1), pp. 31-42.

Tirado, R. (2006), “El poder de las cámaras industriales de México”, Foro Internacional, 46(2), pp. 197-226.

Vig, N. y M. Kraft (2010), Environmental Policy: New Directions for the Twenty-first Century, Washington, D.C., cq Press.

Vogel, D. (1978), Lobbying the Corporation: Citizen Challenges to Business authority, Nueva York, Basic Books.

______ (1993), “Representing Diffuse Interests in Environmental Policymaking”, en K. Weaver y B. Rockman (eds.), Do Institutions Matter? Government Capabilities in the United States and Abroad, Washington, D.C., Brookings Institution, pp. 237-271.

Walker, J. (1991), Mobilizing Interest Groups in America: Patrons, Professionals and Social Movements, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.

Wilson, J. (1995), Political Organizations, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Yin, H. y P. Schmeidler (2009), “Why do Standardized iso 14001 Environmental Management Systems Lead to Heterogeneous Environmental Outcomes?”, Business Strategy and the Environment, 18(7), pp. 469-486.

Yu, Z. (2005), “Environmental Protection: A Theory of Direct and Indirect Competition for Political Influence”, Review of Economic Studies, 72(1), pp. 269-286.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29265/gypp.v25i1.150

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


 

       Gestión y Política Pública

www.gestionypoliticapublica.cide.edu